What Are The Construction Phases?
1- Excavation Application:
Excavation application is made on the land in accordance with the architectural project and accompanied by the coordinates brought by the survey engineer.
Excavation is done according to the application. For this, construction machines suitable for the ground are selected. A 24-ton crusher excavator was used on this land.
3- Transportation of the excavation:
The rubble and rocks from the excavation are loaded on trucks and thrown into the areas indicated by the municipality.
4- Ground gravel and drainage works:
The coarse soil on the excavated ground is stripped and leveled with gravel. Special drainage pipes are laid for drainage in the gravel. Attention is paid to the slopes of the drainage pipes so that they can discharge the groundwater. In order to carry out this process properly, the thickness of the stone chips should not be less than 18 cm.
5- Gravel leveling and lean concrete under the foundation:
The laid gravel is leveled. Lean concrete casting is started by placing molds that are leveled around the gravel. The lean concrete thickness should be 10 cm. Pay attention to how the drainage pipes are covered so that the lean concrete does not clog the drain pipes.
6- Raft sub-base insulation preparations:
Before the raft foundation construction, in order to be able to insulate the bundling of the foundation and to form the foundation form together with the insulation of the foundation sides, a formwork/wall is built with bricks on the foundation borders. The dimensions of this wall are determined according to the raft foundation boundaries. Its height is 5-6 cm higher than the raft foundation thickness. This is required for 5-6 cm excess insulation protection concrete.
7- Under-foundation bundling insulation and protection concrete:
The bundling insulation that will remain under the raft foundation is made with membrane type insulation material and 5 cm of protection concrete is laid on it. The protection concrete prevents the insulation from being damaged during the iron laying during the raft foundation manufacture.
8-Laying of raft foundation bars.
Foundation irons are laid in accordance with the static project. Iron spacers are placed. These covers should basically be 5 cm. Galvanized strips are passed through the iron gaps to provide a Faraday cage and to discharge the static electricity charge.
9- Pouring the foundation concrete:
The concrete, which is brought according to the concrete class determined in the static project, is poured without adding water to the concrete, by reinforcing it with a plasticizer if necessary. A vibrator must be used to ensure that the concrete settles well in the mold and does not form gaps. Vibrator work is handed over to conscious staff and operated throughout the casting.
10- Production of basement curtains:
The iron, formwork and concrete works of the basement walls to be manufactured between the raft foundation and the basement level are completed.
12- Filling and compression:
Fillings made with suitable material for the space inside the basement walls must be saturated with water before compacting with a compactor in order not to create any spaces later on.
13- Compactor compaction:
The filling, which has reached approximately 20% moisture content, is compacted with a compactor.
14- Lean concrete with mesh iron at basement level:
After the infrastructure works such as sewage installation are completed on the compacted filling, gravel is laid. The task of this stone chips is to protect the concrete and mesh iron by forming a layer between lean concrete and filling material. 8-12 cm thick concrete (in the class stipulated in the project) is poured on the laid crushed stone. The concrete class poured in this application is C25. It should be known that the poor quality of lean concrete made on the filling may lead to problems such as floor collapse in the future.
15- The wicker lean concrete prepared for concrete casting becomes ready.
16- Straw lean concrete casting:
The importance of the finishing level and upper edges of the basement curtains is clear in this photograph. For the ease and accuracy of lean concrete leveling, it is necessary to pay attention to such tricks in advance. If the elevation of the curtains is lower than the lean concrete level, it is statically dangerous for lean concrete to enter between the column sprouts and form an additional layer.
17- Hollow system floor formwork:
The form supports, the arrangement of the hollow blocks, the iron ores of the columns and the frequency of the formwork are seen. The formwork reinforcements must be strong so that the team using vibrators can work without hesitation while pouring the concrete. Otherwise, vibration is tried to be saved and static weaknesses or even dangerous gaps may occur.
18- Column pattern:
It is important that the material to be used during the production of column and deck molds is clean, smooth and solid. The pressure exerted by the fresh concrete on the mold surfaces can easily rise up to tens of tons at some points. For this reason, attention should be paid to the strength and smoothness of the material to be used in the mold manufacturing, as well as the strong supports, the smoothness of the iron reinforcements must be ensured and the covers must be placed on each surface of the mold. It should be known that the cover materials of different productions such as columns, decks and foundations are different from each other and the right cover should be used in the right place. Reinforced concrete productions that do not use spacers invite corrosion.
19- The mold prepared for pouring concrete:
After the mold, iron and hollow block manufacturing is completed, final checks are made and hollow blocks that have been misaligned during manufacturing are corrected.
20- Pouring concrete for the deck:
The concrete, which is brought according to the concrete class determined in the static project, is poured without adding water to the concrete, by reinforcing it with a plasticizer if necessary. A vibrator must be used to ensure that the concrete is well placed in the mold and does not form gaps. Vibrator work is handed over to conscious staff and operated throughout the casting. Care is taken not to disturb the hollow blocks throughout the process. First, the main beam and hollow block beams are poured and compacted with a vibrator. Then, the concrete for the deck is poured and it is compacted again with a vibrator and fused with the beam concrete. During the concrete pouring, attention is paid to the intervals between the concrete layers so that no cold joints are formed at any point. In case the concrete comes from distant points, support can be obtained from various additives, and it is necessary to be prepared against the use of epoxy-based chemicals to strengthen the connection of special points.
21- Terrace Deck Ready for Concrete:
While preparing the terrace slab formwork, the reason for the lath that was nailed to the upper level of the slab concrete is to prevent the attachments of the parapet walls from being seen. In this production, sprouts were left for the parapet wall and it was preferred that the parapet mold and the deck mold be in one piece.
22- Finished terrace and parapet concrete:
The advantages of choosing reinforced concrete as the parapet material should not be overlooked. In terms of durability, ease of detail and ease of insulation for applications such as dish antennas in the future, it will be appropriate to use concrete on parapet walls. It is known that the expansion of the leveling concretes poured on the terrace and the insulation protection concretes pushes the non-reinforced concrete parapets and cracks them, thus destroying the insulation and causing expensive problems to repair.
23- View of the Completed Reinforced Concrete Manufacturing
24- Brick Wall Preparations
25- Brick wall productions:
Brick wall application is made in accordance with the project of the reinforced concrete building. During this application, it should be ensured that the exterior wall alignment of the building is in one direction from the foundation to the roof. In this way, unnecessary thick plastering is prevented due to minor deviations that may occur in reinforced concrete manufacturing, and a perfect appearance is obtained in terms of plumbing and scales. A wall production planned in this way (wholly) provides both aesthetic success and economic savings.
26- Lintels and wall fillings:
The ratios between the length of the window lintels and the width of the window must be correct. After the entire wall production is completed, the gaps above the top row should be filled with plaster tightly.
27- It is important to clean and keep the inside and surroundings of the construction site clean at every possible stage throughout the production.
Thanks to this cleaning, in addition to facilitating production, it is possible to prevent work accidents, to make production controls and to rehearse the next work stages, to notice the production deficiencies in time and to be ready for the next production stages easily. A large number of companies come to a construction site whose brick wall phase is still in progress and they prepare by taking measurements for their own production. The first condition for the technical staff of many companies such as kitchen, door, window, electricity, plumbing etc. to be productive in the work site is to be able to work in a clean and proper environment.
28- Laying the inner walls:
At the stage of building the interior partition walls, first a row of brick walls should be built, checked by the technical implementation officers of the building and the project designers, and “approval” should be obtained from the building owner. Thanks to this approval, it will be possible to foresee changes that may occur later and to prevent waste of resources.
29- Exterior view of the rough building with a finished brick wall
30- Exterior view of the rough building with a finished brick wall.
Now this building is ready for the so-called finishing works.